Alcohol Phenol and Ether Class 12 Notes Pdf

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Alcohol Phenol and Ether Class 12 Notes Pdf

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Alcohol Phenol and Ether

 

Alcohols :- These are called hydroxy derivatives of alkenes.

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General Formula :- png image

 

Classification of Alcohols :- Alcohols are classified into two types.

(1) On the basis of alkyl (R) group

(a) Primary alcohol (1°) – An alcohol if OH group is attached to the primary carbon atom (1°) then it is called primary alcohol.

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(b) – Secondary alcohol (2°) – If OH group is attached at any (2°) then it is called secondary alcohol

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Note – If two OH groups are on any adjacent carbon in a chain of carbon, then it is called alkaline glycol.
If OH group is present on both the ends of the carbon chain, then it is called polymethyl glycol.

(c) Tertiary alcohol (3°) – If OH group is attached at any (3°) then it is called tertiary alcohol.

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Note – Alkyl groups present in alcohol are of electron donor nature, so the more electron donors increase, the more the reactivity of alcohol is, so on this basis the order of reactivity of alcohol will be as follows.

3°>2°>1°> Ch3oH

(2) Classification on the basis of OH group

(1) Mono hydric alcohol – If an OH group is present in an alcohol, then it is called mono hydric alcohol.

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Alcohol Phenol And Ether Class 12
Alcohol Phenol And Ether Class 12

 

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(2) Dihydric alcohol – If two OH groups are present on different carbons in an alcohol, then it is called dihydric alcohol. It is also called glycol

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(3) Trihydric alcohol – If 3 OH group is present in an alcohol then it is called dry hydric alcohol

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Note – It is also called glycerin or glycerol.

 

(4) Polyhydric alcohol – If an alcohol contains more than 3 OH group then it is called polyhydric alcohol.

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IUPAC nomenclature of alcohols – png image

 

 

Alcohol phenol and ether important notes

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Q-1 Who discovered Oxygen?

Ans – Oxygen was discovered by Sealey and Priestley.

 

Isomerism :- Generally, isomerism is divided into two parts according to the table.

Note – According to the table, you can understand the different parts of this isomer, their definitions are given below.

 

Isomerism in alcohols :- The following four types of isomerism are shown by alcohol

 

(1) Chain isomerism – Those compounds whose formulas are similar to each other but the chains are different, then that series is called isomerism.
There should be at least 4 carbons to show this isomerism

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(2) Position isomerism – Those compounds whose molecular formulas are same but the position of the OH group is changed, they show position isomerism of alcohols

There should be at least 3 carbons to show this isomerism

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(3) Functional isomerism – Those compounds whose formulas are the same but the functional group is changed, they show functional isomerism

Note – Alcohols always show functional isomerism with here but they should have at least two carbon atoms.

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(4) Optical isomerism – When the structure of a compound is seen in a mirror, due to the polarization of light, its anticlockwise and clockwise positions seem to change, such compounds show optical isomerism.

 

Note – This isomerism can be represented by the rail molecule.

 

Keirel Molecules :- Those compounds which are mirror images to each other but are not superimposed on each other are called Kirail molecules.

This will be possible only when the four valencies of the central atom are different.

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Alcohols Phenols and Ethers Class 12 Notes Pdf

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