Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Class 12 Notes

Aldehydes,Ketones,Carboxylic Acids,Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids,General Formulas of Aldehydes and Ketones,isomerism,Position isomerism,Geinyar reagent,Oxidation of alkaline glycol,Ozone decomposition,hydration of alkene,Stefan reaction,Rosenmund Reduction,

Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Class 12 Notes

Dry distillation of calcium salts,alkaline hydrolysis of jam di halide,From fatty acids,Dehydrogenation of alcohols,Partial oxidation of alcohols,aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids class 12 aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids class 12 ppt aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids class 12 notes pdf download aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids class 12 notes aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids class 12 important question

 

 

Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

 

 

Aldehyde and Ketone :- Aldehyde and ketone are called carbonyl compounds because they contain carbonyl group, this carbonyl group which is sp2-projected.

 

General Formulas of Aldehydes and Ketones – image

Aldehyde can be formed from one carbon while there must be minimum 3 carbon atoms to represent ketone

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functional group table

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Note – If 3 or more than 3 similar alkyl functional groups are given in the chain of any carbon, then do not take them in chain and write the name of their group by putting “carb” while writing the name i.e. do not attach in the previous ascendant.

 

Aldehydes Ketones And Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes Ketones And Carboxylic Acids

 

Isomerism

 

Chain isomerism – the chain is different from the same molecular formula

Position isomerism – Molecular formula same but group position changes

Functional isomerism – in this compound has the same molecular formula but the functional group is changed

Note – Aldehyde always shows functional isomerism with ketone but it should have minimum 3 carbons.

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Isomerism – This isomer shows only ketones, in which the position of the carbonyl group present in the ketone changes from the middle, for this ketone should have at least 5 carbon atoms

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Methods of preparation of aldehydes and ketones

(1) Partial oxidation of alcohols

If 1° and 2° alcohols are oxidised in the presence of p.c.c, aldehydes and ketones are obtained respectively.
PCC – Pyridinium Chlorochromate

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(2) Dehydrogenation of alcohols

When a 1° or 2° alcohol is heated in the presence of copper Cu at 573K temperature, aldehydes and ketones are obtained respectively and hydrogen gas is released.

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(3) From fatty acids

Alkanoic acids are called fatty acids.
When a fatty acid is heated in the presence of MnO at a temperature of 300 degrees, then Co2 and gas are liberated and aldehyde ketones are obtained.
=> For this 2 molecules of fatty acid of fatty acid are taken

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(4) By alkaline hydrolysis of jam di halide

 

If two halides are present on the same carbon, then it is called jam di halide.
=> If both the halides are present on the adjacent carbon, then it is called vicinal (sannidh, mulabh) di halide, in addition, if both the halide ends are present above the carbon, then it is called alpha w di halide.

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(5) By dry distillation of calcium salts

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imp*
(6) Rosenmund Reduction

In this reaction an alkanoyl chloride is reduced from hydrogen with pd, Baso4 and boiling xylene, then aldehydes are obtained.

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Note – In this reaction, the catalyst taken Baso4 acts as a poison for pd, if Baso4 is not taken along with pd in this reaction, then further reduction of the aldehyde formed would have resulted in further reduction of alcohol.

Xylene :- When CH3 group is present at any two different corners of benzene, then it is called divalent.

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(7) Stefan reaction (aldehyde only)

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Note – In its reaction, instead of SnCl + Hcl, DIBAL – H is taken as a catalyst.
DIBAL – H  :- DI A ISO BUTIL ALUMINUM – Hydhied

 

(8) By hydration of alkene

When ethene is hydrolysed, aldehydes are obtained.
On hydration of any other alkene, ketones are obtained

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(9) Ozone decomposition (by alkene) – image

(10) Oxidation of alkaline glycol – image

(11) Geinyar reagent :-

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Part – 2

ketones