Amines class 12 notes chapter 13

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Amines class 12 notes chapter 13 – Nitrogenous organic compound (amine) Nitrogen, Organic Compound, Amine

 

Organic compounds containing nitrogen-containing functional groups
Nitrogen, Organic Compound, Amine

 

Amines

Organic compounds having functional group containing nitrogen are called amines.

General formula of amines – image

 

There are two types of amines

(1) Aromatic amines (Aryl amines) – Such amines in which benzene rings are found are called aromatic amines.

image

 

Amines Class 12 Notes Chapter 13
Amines Class 12 Notes Chapter 13

(2) aliphatic amines are of the following types

 

(a) Primary amine (NH2) – If carbon atom is present on only one side of nitrogen then it is called primary amine

image

(b) Secondary amine (NH) – If the same or dissimilar carbon atoms are present on both sides of nitrogen, then it is called symmetric and asymmetric amine respectively.

image

(c) Tertiary amine (N) – If carbon atoms are present on all three sides of nitrogen then it is called tertiary amine

image

(d) Quaternary amine – It has carbon atom around the nitrogen so that it is found in its cationic form which is called ammonium ion

 

IUPAC nomenclature of amines :- image

 

Isomerism of amino

(1) Chain isomerism – the chain is different from the same molecular formula

(2) Position isomerism – Molecular formula is same but the position of the group varies

(3) Functional isomerism – In this, the molecular formula of amine remains the same but they show this isomerism by changing to 1°, 2°, 3° among themselves

(4) Intermediate : This isomerism is represented by only 2° amine i.e. the position of NH group in 2° amine is changed from the middle.

IMAGE

 

Amines class 12 notes chapter 13 – Nitrogenous organic compound (amine) Nitrogen, Organic Compound, Amine

IMP*
(1) Hopmann reaction – In this, the reaction of an alkyl halide with HN3, 1°, 2°, 3° amines gives 1°, 2°, 3° amines respectively
This reaction is used for the conversion of aminesIMAGE(2) Greybill thylamide synthesis :- image 

imp*
(3) Reduction of amides : – When an amide is reduced in the presence of LiAlH4, four hydrogens are taken together to give 1° amine.
It takes four hydrogens together

 

(4) By reduction of cyanide and isocyanide :-

image

 

(5) Hypo bromide reaction / Hopmann bromide reaction :-

image

 

(6) Curtius reaction(sodium azoid) – image

 

(7) By reducing carbonyl compound : – CHO and CoB are called carbonyl compounds, by reduction of ammonia, amines are obtained, now if this amine is reduced, then primary amine is obtained.

image

 

(8) By aldoxy reduction

image

 

(9) Grinyar reagent

image

 

(10) Schmitt reaction (with hydrozoic acid)

image

 

(11) By reduction of nitro compounds

image

 

 

Physical properties of aminos

(1) Under normal conditions, methyl amine and ethyl amine are in the gaseous state while higher than that in the liquid state.

(2) Aniline is colorless in its pure state but gradually oxidized as it is stored in color and it is dark brown in its impure state.

(3) The initial aliphatic amines have an ammonia-like odor while the higher amines have a fishy odor while aniline is oil-smelling.

(4) The solubility in water decreases as the molecular weight of amines increases, that is, amines with low molecular weight dissolve in water but aniline is insoluble in water due to its oily nature.

(5) The order of boiling point in different types of amines is 1°>2°>3°

 

Chemical Properties of Aminos :- comming soon

 

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