Biomolecules Notes 12 Class English 2022

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Biomolecules Notes 12 Class English 2022

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Biomolecules – They are important substances found in the cells of living beings, from which these young organisms carry out their growth and biochemical reactions.

Example – Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, hormones, lipids (fats) and nucleic acids etc.

 

Cell

The microscopic unit of living organism which is helpful for the biological reaction O and oxidation-reduction reaction taking place in it is called cell.

=> Animal cell is divided into three parts

(1) Cell Membrane – The double membrane made of proteins and fats around the organism in all cells is called cell membrane, it performs the function of movement of chemical substances.

 

(2) Cytoplasm – All the living matter present in the cell other than the nucleus is called cytoplasm.
Mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum etc.

 

(3) Cell nucleus – The part present in the organism which is responsible for biological activities is called nucleus.

 

Carbohydrates – The compounds which are made up of carbon and hydrate are called carbohydrates.

Its general formula is Cx(H2o).
Carbohydrates contain polyhydroxy groups and carbonyl groups.

image

Exceptions – form aldehyde, acetic acid There are some compounds that follow the formula of carbohydrates yet are not carbohydrates

image

=> While there are some compounds that do not follow the formula of carbohydrates, they are still carbohydrates.

image

Functions of Carbohydrates

=> It provides heat and energy to the body
=> It is stored in the form of starch in plants whereas in living organisms as lycogen.
=> Makes the covering in plants
=> form the cell membrane

 

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Biomolecules Notes 12 Class English 2022

 

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Q – 2 Which carbohydrate is present in the cell membrane (wall) of plants?
Ans – Cellulose

 

Classification of carbohydrates

image

Sugars and sugars – Carbohydrates which are sweet in taste are called sugars e.g. Glucose, Sucrose (sugar) Lactones (milk)

Whereas substances which are not sweet in taste are called sugars such as starch, cellulose

 

Reductive and non-reducing – Carbohydrates which get reduced by Fehling’s solution and Tonell’s reagent are called reducing and those which are not reduced by them are called non-reducing.

 

Monosaccharide – If no other carbohydrate is obtained on decomposition of a carbohydrate then it is called monosaccharide like glucose and fructose

image

If aldehyde group is present in a monosaccharide then it is called aldose and if ketone group is present then it is called ketose. The number of carbons in monosaccharide ranges from 3 to 7.

image

 

Glucose and fructose – both of these have the general formula C6H12O6, they are called aldo hexoses and keto hexoses respectively.

 

Glucose – It is also called dextrose.

 

Methods for making Glucose

(1) from sucrose – image

Physical properties of glucose
=> It is a white crystalline solid sweet in taste and monosaccharide soluble in water.
=> Its melting point is 145 degree
=> These are of south polarizing rotational and left polarizing rotational nature
=> it display the changed rotation

 

Chemical properties of glucose

(1) reduction – image

(2) Oxidation – image

(3) Reaction of aldehyde group only – image

(4) Acetylation – image

(5) Methylation – image

 

Structure of Glucose

=> The first carbon (C1) in glucose is called anomer carbon because this carbon has a carbonyl group
=> The OH group on the third carbon (C3) in glucose is present on the left and on the remaining carbons on the right
=> The anomer carbon (C1) and (C5) interact with each other in the structure of glucose, this structure is called α – D glucose

 

Note – If the spin of the atom or group attached to the anomer carbon in α – D glucose is changed, then the structure formed is called β – D glucose.

image

 

Haworth structure – The Haworth structure of glucose is similar to that of pyrene, hence its Haworth structure is called pyranose structure.

image

 

Fructose :- It is called keto hexane.

Structure of fructose – The secondary (C2) carbon in this is called the anomer carbon.
In this too, the OH group on C3 is on the left side while on the other carbons it is on the right.
In this the anomers C2 and C5 together form the cyclic structure O.

Howarth Structures :- The Haworth structure of fructose is similar to that of furon, hence these structures are called Furano structures.

image

Anomer Carbon :- The carbon in a carbohydrate containing carbonyl group C=O is called anomer carbon.

Variable rotation : If the angle of rotation of a compound structure changes with time, it is called variable rotation.
The angle of change of Ex – α – D glucose is +112℃ while that of β – D glucose is +19℃ which changes with time to +52℃.

Polysaccharides : – If a carbohydrate is hydrolysed, from 1 to 10 monosaccharide units are obtained, then it is kept in the category of olingo saccharide, the monosaccharide units obtained can be equal or unequal.

(A) Sucrose –

 

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