Chemistry class 12 polymers notes pdf

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Polymer

 

Polymer – When two or more similar or dissimilar different single unit units join together to form a new compound, it is called polymer and this process is called polymerization.

 

Even polymer – When any one of the plank units are similar to each other, then an even polymer will be formed.

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Heterogeneous polymer – When a polymer consisting of different single unit units is called heterogeneous polymer.

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Classification of polymers – Table of classification of polymers

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(A) Classification of polymers on the basis of source

(1) Natural polymers – Those polymers which are obtained from plants and animals are called natural polymers.

 

(2) Synthetic polymers – Those polymers which have been synthesized in the laboratory by humans and made in industry are called synthetic polymers.
Like Polythene, Teflon, Orlon, PVC etc.

 

(3) Semi synthetic polymers – Those polymers which are obtained from nature and are obtained by chemical reactions are called semi synthetic polymers.
Such as – cellulose dye acetate, cellulose nitrate, rubber etc.

 

(B) Classification of polymers on the basis of structure

(1) Linear polymers – Those polymers in which one polymer unit joins together to form a large straight chain polymer are called linear polymers.
Like – pvc, nylon, polyester etc.

 

(2) Branched polymers – The units which organize in an irregular manner to form polymers are called chain polymers.
Eg – Amylopection, Glycogen, Polythin

 

(3) Transverse polymer – In this polymer, linear polymers are formed first, which are then arranged in a three-dimensional structure to form a structure called a transversal polymer.
Eg – Bakelite, melamine, formaldehyde resin

 

(C) polymerization

(1) Additive Mode :- coming soon (Some topics are missed from here, they will be updated soon)

 

(2) Cationic additive polymerization :- In this polymerization, an electron donor (alkyl group) should be attached to a unit taken in this polymerization, only then the cation reaction obtained from ionic addition will start on it.
This polymerization takes place in the following three steps

image

 

Anionic additive polymerization – In this polymerization an electron acceptor group (halogen group) must be attached to a single unit.
In such case the negative ion from an ionic compound will initiate the reaction.

This reaction takes place in the following steps

image

 

Chemistry Class 12 Polymers Notes Pdf
Chemistry Class 12 Polymers Notes Pdf

 

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Condensation polymerization– In this type of polymerization, some small molecules like H2O, NH3, ROH etc. are liberated from different monomer units while the remaining parts join together to form a polymer.

 

Note – The different units taken in this polymerization should have different functional groups or

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Q -1 What is the antidote, in what way is it used in free radical action?
Ans- Inhibitors are those chemical substances which bind at the end of a polymer and stop its growth.
In free radical polymerization, inhibitor is used.

 

Types of Co (heterogeneous) polymerization :- If two different types of single units are given, they can be combined in the following four ways.

image

 

imp*
Molecular weight of polymersProperties of a polymer, the molecular weight, size and shape of the units present in it.
The molecules of those units depend on the number of O.

 

Order of polymerization – The number of molecules of a single unit of polymer present in a polymer is called the order of polymerization.

 

The molecular weight of polymers is determined in the following two ways

(1)  Number average experience – image

(2) Weight Average Experience – image

 

Multiple Dispersion Exponent (PDI) – The ratio of mass average molecular mass and number average mass of a polymer is called PDI.

image

 

Polydisperse :- If the molecular weights of all the units present in the polymer are equal to each other, then it will be polydisperse.

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Single dispersion :- If the molecular mass, molecular mass of all the units present in the polymer are same, then it will be a single dispersion.
Ex – protein

 

Rubber

Rubber :- The opposite form of polyiso – prene is called natural rubber.
There are three types of rubber

(1) Natural rubber – By making a special cut in the stem of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, a milky substance is collected in latex, the amount of rubber is found in it, now it has so much water for dilution. We mix so that the amount of rubber remains 10-15℅  on its total volume, 1% acetic acid is added, due to which the colloidal particles of the rubber coagulate, removing the top water and heating the remaining material, filter it and cool it so that it solidifies. This is called crepe rubber

 

Its general formula is C5H8, also known as isoprene.
The homopolymerization of this isoprene gives polyisoprene

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=>The opposite form of polyiso-prene is called natural rubber.

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=> Opposite form of natural rubber is called gutta percha

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(2) Vulcanized Rubber –  coming soon update

(3) Synthetic Rubber – coming soon update

coming soon update

 

 

 

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Heterogeneous polymer,Even polymer,Classification of polymers,Classification of polymers on the basis of source,Natural polymers,Synthetic polymers,Semi synthetic polymers,Classification of polymers on the basis of structure,Linear polymers,Branched polymers,Transverse polymer,polymerization,Additive Mode,Cationic additive polymerization,Anionic additive polymerization, Condensation polymerization, polymerization,Order of polymerization, Polydisperse,Single dispersion,Rubber,vulcanized Rubber,ynthetic Rubber,

 

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