Covalent compound 12th class 2022

Covalent compound 12th class 2022 covalent compound 12th class notes covalent compound chapter notes covalent compound chapter full notes cbse covalent compound full chapter notes

 

12 Class Cbse Covalent compound

12th class *extends covalent compound 12th class which is a covalent compound ionic and covalent compounds examples properties of covalent compounds

what is covalent bond class 12 covalent meaning double covalent bond example which is a covalent compound ionic and covalent compounds examples properties of covalent compounds

 

 

Covalent Compound 

 

Covalent Compound

The whole inorganic compound is divided into three parts

(1) common salt
(2) double salt
(3) Covalent compounds / packaged salts / complex salts

 

(1) Common salt :- Common salt contains one type of cation and only one type of salt.

png image

Simple salts are stable in the solid state, they break down into all their straight lines in aqueous solutions.

image

 

(2) Double salt :- The product formed from two simple salts is called double salt.

image

(3) Covalent compound / packaged salt / complex salt

A product made from the combination of two or more compounds which retains its special identity in solid state and maintains its special identity in aqueous solution is called complex salt.

=> Complex salt does not split in all its head lines in aqueous solution hence it is also called complex salt
like –

image

Composition of complex salts

 

The outer part of the large bracket
=> ionosphere
=> ionizable part
=> counter ion / simple circle

 

The inside part of the big bracket
=> Coordinate Circle
=> Coordinating Circle
=> complex ions

 

(1) The metal atom present inside the coordination system in complex salts is called the central metal atom and the metal atom O present with this metal atom is called ligand.

(2) The number of vacant orbitals equal to the number of ligands are present near the central metal atom of a complex salt.

In these vacant orbitals, ligands donate their lone pairs to form covalent bonds, that is why complex salts are called covalent compounds.

(3) In covalent compounds, ligand acts as Lewis base and central metal atom as Lewis acid, hence these compounds are called complex salts.

Q-1 Write the difference between double salt and complex salt?
Ans.

Double salt Packaged salts
it loses its special identity in aquatic solution It maintains its special identity in the aquatic solutio
This salt ionizes to all simple ions in aqueous solution These salts do not ionize to all their head ions in their aqueous solution
It gives test of all simple ions in aqueous solution It does not give test for all simple ions in aqueous solution
Ex – K4[Fe(CN)6] Ex – K4[Fe(CN)6]

 

Central metal atom

 

=> The metal atom or ion present in the complex compound with which the ligands are attached by forming covalent bonds is called the central metal atom.=> Common transition metal as central metal atom or ion
=> Transition metals combine to form complex compounds
Because –

(1) These metals are small in size
(2) These metals have more number of vacant orbitals
(3) These metals have high positive charge

Covalent Compound 12Th Class 2021
Covalent Compound 12Th Class 2021

 

Covalent compound 12th class 2021

Properties of covalent compounds class 12 what is covalent bond class 12 covalent meaning double covalent bond example types of covalent bond class 12 covalent compound chapter notes pdf covalent compound chapter notes class 12

Covalent compound chapter notes for neet covalent compound chapter notes pdf download covalent bonding notes pdf chemical bonding notes pdf ionic and covalent bonding notes pdf chemical bonding notes class 12 pdf

 

 

Ligand

Ligand :- Those atoms or group of atoms which have the ability to provide lone pair are called ligands.

 

Classification of ligands :- Ligandos are divided into the following parts on the basis of the number of donor atoms

(A) Monodentate Ligand :- Those ligands which contain one donor atom and tend to donate a lone pair are called monodentate ligands.

 

There are 2 types of monomeric ligands.

(1) Negatively charged monotonic ligand :- In the name of these ligands, “O” is put at the end

(1.1) The negatively charged monodentate ligand is also divided into 2 parts

 

(1.1.1) -1 charge negatively charged monomeric ligands

table image

negatively charged monomeric ligands with -2 charge

table image

(1.1.2) Neutral monotonic ligand

 

image

 

(B) Binocular Legend

Those ligands which are capable of donating two lone pairs are called double dentate ligands.

image

 

(C) Multiple dentate ligands

Those ligands which tend to donate more than 2 lone pairs and in which more than 2 donor atoms are present are called multiple dentate ligands.

image

 

(D) Common dentate ligands

A dentate ligand which can bind to the central metal atom with two different donor atoms is called emergent dentate ligand.

image

 

Oxidation Points

=> The oxidation number of the first class is +1
=> The oxidation number of second group elements is +2 they become permanent by giving up two electrons.
=> The oxidation number of hydrogen is -1 in metallic hydrides and +1 in non-metallic hydrides.

 

IUPAC Nomenclature of Covalent Compounds :- COMMIN SOON

 

 

Home  Blog  Insurance  News  Education 

 

Types of chemical bonding pdf covalent bonding notes answers 12 class covalent compound name 12 class covalent compound pdf 12 class covalent compound questions 12 class cbse covalent compound 12 class

Covalent compound notes pdf 12 class covalent compound notes pdf download 12 class covalent compound notes in english