Imperfections in solids

Imperfections in solids Metal or cation-less defect, Non stoichiometric or araesymmetric mitotic defects, Write the difference between Schottky and Frankl defect? Frankl’s defect Shotkey defect Stychiometry or Ras Equation Mittian Defect Incompleteness  Excess defect of metal or cation imperfections in solids pdf

Imperfections in solids

Incompleteness 

A defect or error occurs due to the disappearance of constituent particles from their regular position in the crystal or due to leaving their fixed position and moving to another place of the crystal lattice or being brought into the impurity, which is called imperfection.

There are two types of imperfection (divided into two parts)

(a) point defect (b) metal or positive excess defect

Point Defect – The defect caused by irregularity or deviation in the ideal arrangement of the constituent particles in the crystal is called point defect.

Bindu Dosha is divided into three parts

(1) Stychiometry or Rasa Equation Mitti Dosha

(2) Non Stychiometry or Arasmization Mitti Dosha

(3) Impurity or Inaccuracy Dosha

 

(1) Stychiometry or Ras Equation Mittian Defect :- The defect in which there is no change in the stoichiometric of the crystal is called stychiometry.

imp: – In this defect, the ratio of cations and anions of the crystal remains the same.

This defect is divided into 2 parts
(a) vacuole defect (b) interstitial defect

Vacancy defect – The defect in which some particles leave their fixed position and move out of the crystal lattice is called Vacancy defect
Note- Due to this defect the density of crystal decreases.
This defect increases with increase in temperature.
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Interspace defect – The defect in which some extra particles get into the inner space of the crystal lattice is called interspace defect.

Note :- Due to this defect the density of crystal increases.
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Note – Vacancy and intra-capacity defects are found in non-ionic solids, these defects are also possible in ionic solids, but it is necessary to maintain electrical neutrality in them, so these defects of ionic solids are known as Schottky or Freckle defects.

Shotkey defect

In this type of defect, some ions leave their fixed positions and move out of the crystal lattice.
These defects are found in the crystals of those ionic compounds, the coordination number of the ion is high and the size of the cation and negative ion is almost the same e.g. Back, Kcl, Cscl …

Note – Due to this defect, the density of crystal decreases and this defect increases with increase in temperature.
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Frankl’s defect

In this type of defect, some ions leave their fixed place and come into the space of the crystal lattice. Generally, this defect is produced by positive ions because the size of cation is much smaller than that of negative ion.

This defect is found in the crystal O of those ionic compounds which have low coordination number and there is a lot of difference in the size of positive ion and negative ion like Zns,AgCl,AgBr…

Note – Due to this defect, the density of the crystal remains unchanged as there is no decrease in the number of unit ions.

There are two types of imperfection notes chemistery

Important questions

Write the difference between Schottky and Frankl defect?
Schottky defect Frenkel defect
In this defect some oils leave their fixed place and move out of the crystal lattice In this type of defect, some ions leave their fixed position and come to the inner space of the crystal lattice.
It has high coordination number Its coordination number is low
The cation and the negative ion have the same size There is a huge difference in the size of cation and anion
Density is less in this defect Density remains unchanged in this defect
It is a vacuole defect (Nacl) It is an interstitial defect (Zncl)

 

(2) :- Non stoichiometric or araesymmetric mitotic defects :- Such compounds in which the ratio of cations and negatives is not the same as the ratio shown by the formula of the yogic is called stoichiometric defect.

It is mainly divided into two parts
(1)- metal or cation deficiency defect (2)- metal or cation excess defect

(1)- Metal or cation-less defect :- In this type of defect, some of the positive oil leaves its fixed place and goes out of the crystal lattice, to maintain the electrical neutrality of the crystal, additional positive charge comes on the other cation nearby.
It is found in the industrial O of two transition metals which have variable oxidation states (we will read about oxidation further).
Ex- Feo,Fes,Nio,etc…

 

(2) Excess defect of metal or cation :- This friend is of two types

(a) – due to presence of intra-cosmic excess positive charge (b) – due to anionic vacancy defect

(a) In this type of defect, some extra fuel enters the space of the ionic crystal lattice, electrons also come into the other space to maintain the neutrality of the crystal
Due to the presence of unpaired electrons in this type of defect crystals, the magnetically colored conductors are
This defect occurs when ZnO is heated, due to which its color becomes yellow.

(b) – Anion Vacancy Defect :- In this type of defect, some negative ions leave their fixed position and move out of the crystal lattice, their place is taken by the electron, due to which the electrical neutrality of the crystal remains. The location is called the color center or the color of the crystal becomes darker as the number of F centers increases.

Thus colourless, non-magnetic, conductors are
For example, yellow color of a- Nacl crystal- its yellow color crystal has electrons instead of Cl(-), due to which its color is yellow.
b- Similarly the color of Kcl is purple and the color of Licl is pink

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Note:- If a crystal of NaCl is heated with the vapor of Na atom then the vapor crystal of Na atom

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