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Solutions Class 12 Notes Solutions chapter class 12 notes

 

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Definition of solutions

Definition of solutions

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a solution or a homogeneous mixture of two substances is called a solution.

Meaning of homogeneous mixture : – A mixture in which the composition of each part is same is called homogeneous mixture or the mixture whose chemical composition of each part is same and physical properties are same is called homogeneous mixture.
e.g. aqueous solution of alcohol

Two main components of a solution are –

(1) – Solute :- The component of the solution which is present in small quantity or that component of the solution which dissolves
(2) Solvent – The component of the solution which is present in large quantity or the component which dissolves is called solvent.

Types of Villains

Types of solution on the basis of solvent – Solvent is divided into three parts on the basis of solvent
(1) – solid solution – the solvent in it is the solid
(2) – liquid solution – it contains solvent
(3) – gas solution – contains solvent gas

Types of solutions on the basis of solubility

(1) – Saturated solution – A solution in which an equal amount of solute is dissolved at a certain temperature is called a saturated solution.

(2) – Unsaturated solution – A solution in which a lesser amount of solute is dissolved at an uncertain temperature than the solute is called an unsaturated solution.

(3) – Supersaturated solution – A solution in which a greater amount of solute is dissolved at a temperature higher than a certain temperature is called a supersaturated solution.

Concentration

Concentration refers to the amount of solute that is present in a certain volume of the solution is called concentration.

The concentration of a solution is expressed in the following units
(1) Volume – Volume Percentage (V/v%)
(2) mass – mass percentage (W/w%)
(3) Mass – Volume Percentage (W/v%)
(4) mole fraction/mole fraction
(5) PPM (Part Per Million)
(6) molarity
(7) molality

(1) Volume – Volume Percentage : – The amount of solute present in 100ml solution in ml is called volume-volume percentage, it is expressed by V/v%

V/v% =(volume in ml of solute × 100 ) (volume in ml of solution)

solution = solute + solvent

V/v% = [(volume in ml of solute) ×100] (volume in ml of solute + volume in ml of solvent)

V/v% = (Va × 100 )÷ Va + Vb

image

(2) Mass – Mass Percentage :- The amount of solute present in 100gm of solute in gm is called mass – mass percentage

(3) Mass – Volume Percentage : – The amount of solution present in 100ml solution in gm is called mass-volume percentage, it is expressed by W/v%

W/v % = (volume in gm of solute × 100 ) Amount of solution in ml

W/v % = (Amount of solute in gm × 100 ) (Amount of solute in gm + Amount of solution in ml)

image

(4) Mole Fraction / Mole Fraction / Mole Fraction【ϗ Kai】 :- The original fraction of a component in a solution is equal to the ratio of the mole number of that component and the mole number O of all the components present in the solution

Let there be two components A and B present in the solution whose mole numbers are Na and Nb respectively and the mole fractions are a and b respectively.
(You can see its solution in the following photo)

image

Therefore, the sum of the mole fractions of all the components present in the solution is always 1.

(5) PPM (Part Per Million – Part Per Million) : – The number of mass parts of the solute which are present in a million (106) parts in the solution is called part per million (ppm).

ppm = mass of solute (in gm) × 106 mass of solution (gm)

★ Part Per Billion (ppb) :- That number of weight parts of the solute which are present in a part of a billion (109) of a solution is called Part Per Billion (ppb)

ppb = mass of solute [gm] × 109 mass of solution (gmp)】

(6) Molarity : – The number of moles of solute present in a liter of solution is called molarity of the solution, it is expressed by M.

Unit = Mole Liter, or mol−1

Molarity (M) = solute mass in grams (molar x volume of solution (in liters))

Number of moles of solute = mass/mole of solute × volume of solvent (in litres)

M = Weight of the solute (in grams) × 1000 / Molecular mass × Volume of the solution (litres)

M = (Wa/Wb)× (1000/V)

image

(7) Molarity : – The number of moles of a solute present in a kilogram of solvent is called the molality of that solution, it is expressed as m.

Unit = mol/kg

m = number of moles of solute/weight of solute (kg)

number of moles = mass of solute (gm) / molar mass

Molarity = mass of solute(gm) × 1000/molar mass × mass of solvent (gm)

The maximum amount of solid substance in gm at a certain temperature which is present in 100gm solvent is called solubility of that substance, or when a solid substance is dissolved in liquid solvent. then the liquid substance of the solid becomes a solution

 

unit cell of crystal lattice Imperfections in solids What is a solid state

Solutions Class 12 Notes Solutions Chapter Class 12 Notes
Solutions Class 12 Notes Solutions Chapter Class 12 Notes

 

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Factors affecting the solubility of a solid substance in a liquid (Factors affecting solubility)

(1) – nature of solute and solvent : – polar solutes, solvents dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutions are soluble in non-polar solvents, depending on how they dissolve.
For example, when Nacl dissolves in water, the solubility is high due to its similar nature.
OR – As per the rules, polar solvents are required to dissolve ionic compounds while nonpolar solvents are required to dissolve covalent compounds.

Note – Those covalent compounds that dissolve easily in water have the ability to form H2 off with water.
e.g. alcohols, amines, carboxylic acids

(2) – Effect of heat : – When a solid substance is dissolved in a liquid, the following type of Vinayak is formed

(1)- If a solid substance dissolves in water to form an endothermic solvent, then the solubility decreases with increasing temperature according to La-Sayte Liye’s law.
For example, salt, sugar, camphor, NH4Cl

(2)- If an exothermic solution is formed on dissolving a substance in water, then according to La-Sayte Lie’s law, the dissolution of such a substance increases with increasing temperature.
Eg – Caco3, No2Co3

(3) – Effect of pressure : – Solid substances are incompressible, that is, free from the effect of pressure, so there is no effect of pressure on the solubility of a solid in a liquid.

Solubility of Gesso in matter and factors affecting it

Whenever a gas is dissolved in a liquid solvent, the gas becomes a solution in the liquid.

 

(1) – Nature of gas :- Those gasses dissolve in water in large quantity either they react with water or get ionized in water like gas like Co2, NH3 dissolve more in water because of water works with
Co2 + H2o

(2) – Effect of heat : – Most of the gas dissolves in water to form exothermic solution, so the solubility of a gas in water decreases with increase in temperature as gas is heated to liberate the gas from the solution. Is

(3) – Effect of pressure : – On increasing the pressure, the solubility of the gas in the liquid increases because by increasing the pressure, the particles of the gas enter the space present in the middle of the liquid, due to which the solubility of the gas increases.
Scientists have given a rule to understand the effect of stain on gas medicine.

Henry’s Law

According to this law, the amount of a gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to the pressure exerted on the gas (m).

M.P
M = knp ( Kn Henry constant)

If the amount of the gas dissolved in the liquid is considered as the mole fraction of the gas, then Henry’s law will be
The partial pressure of a gas in its vapor state is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas present in the solution.

P proportional to X gas
P = Kn X gas
X gas = P/Kn

Therefore, the lower the value of Henry’s constant for a gas, the greater will be the solubility of that gas in the liquid.

When a liquid is heated in a closed vessel, the process of evaporation and condensation takes place.
liquid = vapor
vapor = liquid (condensation)

Factors affecting vapor pressure

(1) – Nature of liquid : – The weaker the intermolecular force acting between the particles of the liquid, the more vapor will be formed of that liquid, so that the vapor pressure will also be higher.

(2) – Effect of temperature : – The higher the temperature of the liquid, the greater will be the vapor pressure, due to which the vapor pressure of the liquid will also be high.
(3) Vapor pressure depression :- The vapor pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solution is always less than that of a pure solvent, this decrease is called vapor pressure depression.
If the vapor pressure of the pure solvent is p0(note) and the vapor pressure of the solution is p, then the drop in vapor pressure

Images

(4) Vapor pressure for a solution made of a liquid liquid :-
The solute and the solvent are two volatiles in a liquid made up of a liquid, so the vapor pressure of such a solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the solute and solvent.
P=

Raoult’s law for the solution formed in a liquid liquid

According to this law, the partial vapor pressure of a component of a solution is proportional to the mole fraction of that component present in the solution.

Image

 

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Henry’s Law

According to this law, the amount of a gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to the pressure exerted on the gas (m).

* Limitations of Henry’s Law

(1) – Henry’s law applies only when the stain is not too much
(2) – very little gas does not react with the solvent and does not ionize and do not conjugate
(3) – the solubility of the gas is less than that of the solvent i.e. the solution is dilute
(4) The molecular state of a gas is a liquid and a gas is the same in both the states.

* Anuprayog of Henry’s Law

(1) The bottle is closed under high pressure to increase the solubility of Co2 in soda water during the cooling drink stage.

(2) Partial pressure of O2 is less in people living at heights, that is, the concentration of O2 decreases, so the body becomes weak due to lack of oxygen (O2) in mountaineers and people living at heights. These symptoms are called anoxia.

(3) In the depths of the sea, divers carry cylinders with them in which helium gas is mixed with air, because in deep sea the diver has to inhale high pressure air, due to which nitrogen and oxygen present in the air are released into the blood. The solubility becomes high and when the diver comes to the surface, the dissolved gas in the blood comes out in the form of bubbles. They say

** Helium gas is mixed with air in the diver’s gas cylinder to protect against wends, so that more is less, usually in the gas cylinder.
He = 11.7% N = 56.2% O2 = 32%

 

Q :- 1 What will be the effect on the solubility of hydrogen gas in water on increasing the temperature?

Ans – Absorption of heat takes place on dissolving hydrogen gas, so even after increasing the temperature for such a gas, there is an increase in the heat.

Q :- 2 Henry’s law applies to benzene C6 H5 solubility of ammonia NH3 gas?

Ans: – Henry’s law applies only because of the decrease in the solubility of ammonia gas in benzene, because according to Henry’s law, the solubility of the gas increases with increase in pressure.

 

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The properties of a solution that depend on the number of molecules of the solute present in the solution.

The atomic properties of the solution, the rules of religion

(1) – Osmosis

(1) The process in which the molecules of a solvent flow from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis.
For example, when dried gram, dried peas, kismis etc. are kept in water, they swell due to osmosis.

(2) Osmotic pressure The excess of pressure applied on the billionth, which is necessary to stop the osmosis by the semi-permeable membrane, is called the osmotic pressure of the solution.

Laws of osmosis can be explained by experiments

 

Laws of osmosis can be explained by experiments

image

A vessel is divided into two parts by a semi-permeable membrane, both parts are equipped with pistons, in which one part is filled with solution and one part is filled with solvent.
As soon as the action of osmosis starts, the piston containing the solution starts to rise upwards. To stop this action, so much external pressure is produced on the piston that there is no osmosis.
Therefore, the external pressure which is applied to stop the action of osmosis is called osmotic pressure.

(1) – Isotonic solution (isotonic) – Those solutions which have the same osmotic pressure are called isotonic solutions. These solvents have the same molarity concentration of the solution.

(2) – Hyperosmotic solution (hypatonic solution) – In two solutions having different osmotic pressure, the solution whose osmotic pressure is greater relative to the other solution is called hyperosmotic solution pressure.

(3) – Hypotonic solution (hypotonic solution) – In two solutions with different osmotic pressure, the solution whose osmotic pressure is less relative to the other solution is called hypotonic solution.

 

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* Relationship between osmotic pressure and molar mass (molecular)

The relation between the osmotic pressure and the molar mass is shown through the photo below.

Image

* Vapor pressure of a solid to a solution formed in a liquid – The solute component of a solid to a solution formed in a liquid is non-volatile while the solvent component is volatile, so the vapor pressure of such a solvent is equal to the vapor pressure of the solution

Vapor pressure of the solution (p) = Pb (vapor pressure of the solvent)

*imp*
* Raoult’s law for a solution formed in a solid (volatile) liquid – according to this law, the relative depression of the vapor pressure of the solution containing the solute is equal to the mole fraction of the non-volatile solute present in the solution.

This rule is confirmed as follows

Image

 

(1) Ideal solution – The solution which obeys Raoult’s law at all temperature and concentration O is called ideal solution.

-The ideal of a solution is said only when it fulfills the following four conditions

(1)-Vapor pressure of the solution should be equal to the sum of solute and solvent

P = P{a} + P{b}

(2) = The volume of the solution formed by dissolving the solute in the solvent should be equal to the sum of the solute and the solvent, meaning there should be a change in volume.

V= V{a} +V{b}

V {mixture} = 0

(3) – The solute should neither emit heat nor be absorbed when the solute is dissolved in the solvent, meaning the enthalpy change should be zero

(4)- If the solute is A and the solvent is B, then the force of attraction between the constituent particles of the solute is A-A attraction force and the force of attraction between the constituent particles of the solvent is B-B attraction force.
And the force of attraction between the constituent particles of the solution A-B is
A-B attraction force is equal to A-A attraction force or B-B attraction force

A-B(attraction)=A-A(attraction)/B-B(attraction)

(2) Ideal solution – Those solutions which do not obey Raoult’s law at all temperature and concentration O are called ideal solution.

Conditions of an ideal solution

(1)- P P{a} + P{b}

(2)- V {mixture} 0

(3)- H {enthalpy} 0

(4)- A-B(attraction) A-A(attraction)/B-B(attraction)

* Types of unadarsh solution

(1)- Those showing positive deviation from Raoult’s law –

(a)- P> P{a} + P{b}

 

(2) – Those showing negative deviation from Raoult’s law –
(a)- P< P{a} + P{b}

(b)- V {mixture} < 0

(c)- H {enthalpy} < 0

(d)- A-B(attraction) < A-A(attraction)/B-B(attraction)

Example – A mixture of acetone + chloroform shows negative deviation from Raoult’s law. Because hydrogen bond is not found between the molecule O of acetone, but when these two are mixed, hydrogen bond is formed between these two, due to which the ions in the solution come closer to each other, so the volume of the solution decreases.

Image

 

*imp*
Steroid mixture :- A diatomic mixture in which the composition of liquid state and vapor state is same, then such mixture boils at the same temperature, then such a mixture is called steric mixture.

Types of stable mixtures

1 – Minimum stable mixture : – If the boiling point of the mixture is less than the boiling point of both its components, then such a mixture is called minimum stable mixture.
For example, a mixture of 95 ethanol + 5% water is the least stable mixture because the boiling point of water is 100 °C and the boiling point of ethanol is 78.5 °C while the boiling point of the mixture is 78 °C.

2 – Maximum stable mixture – If the boiling point of the mixture is more than the boiling point of both its components, then such mixture is called maximum stable mixture
For example, a mixture of 68°C HNO3 + 32% water is the most stable mixture because the boiling point of NHO3 is 86°C and the boiling point of water is 100°C while the boiling point of the mixture is 120°C.

 

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Types of Atomic Properties

 

Types of Atomic Properties : – There are four types of Atomic Properties –
(1) vapor pressure depression
(2) Boiling point elevation
(3) freezing point depression
(4) osmotic pressure(1) Vapor pressure depression :- The vapor pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute is always less than that of a pure solvent, it is called vapor pressure depression.Raoult’s law for a solution containing a non-volatile solute – According to this law, the vapor pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute is equal to the mass of the non-volatile solute present in the solution.image(2) Boiling point elevation :- The temperature of a liquid at which the vapor pressure of that liquid becomes equal to one atmospheric pressure, then this temperature is called the boiling point of the liquid.
The boiling point of a solution containing boiling point is always higher than that of a pure solvent. This is called boiling point elevation. If the boiling point of the pure solvent is t b° and that of the solution is t b, then the boiling point elevation isT{b} = T{b} -T{b}°(3) Calculation of freezing point depression and molar mass of its non-volatile solute :-
The temperature of a liquid at which the vapor pressure of that liquid becomes equal to the stain after its solid state, then this temperature is called the freezing point of the liquid.image

more

 

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Inverse Inverse Osmosis :- If the solution is pure and the solvent is separated through a semi-permeable membrane, then the action of osmosis stops when the piston of the solution is exerted equal to the osmotic pressure.
But if a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the piston of the solution, then the solvent molecules from the solution pass through the semi-permeable membrane and enter the pure solvent. That is, the action is opposite to osmosis. This action is called Vyuktam Osmosis
When a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure on the piston of the solution is applied, the removal of the solvent molecule O from the solution through a permeable membrane is called electrostatic osmosis.

Note: – Nowadays inverse osmosis is done to make enrichment water potable.

Laws of osmotic pressure :- A scientist named Vant-Half also applied the laws of gases to the solution and also generated a solution equation.

(1) Vant half Boyle’s law : – The osmotic pressure of a solution at a given temperature is directly proportional to its concentration.

image

(2) Law of half temperature :- The osmotic pressure of a solution at a certain concentration and dilution is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

image

Abnormal molar mass :- By the molecular number properties the true molar mass of the non-volatile solute can be known then
(1) – solution is dilute
(2) – Solution obeys Raoult’s law
(3) The ionization of the solute in the solution does not take place nor does the conjugation take place.

If the solute ionizes or condenses in the solution, then the molar mass of the solution obtained by molecular properties is different from its actual molar mass, this is called abnormal molar mass.

Abnormal values ​​of molecular number properties : – When solute ionizes in solution –
Then the ionization of the solute takes place in the solution, then the observed value of the number of particles of the solute comes more than the theoretical value, in this case unusual values ​​of molecular number properties are obtained!

image

When the compound multiplication of the solute in the solution is
When the solute is compounded in a solution, the observed value of the number of molecules of the solute is less than the theoretical value, in which case unusual values ​​of molecular properties are obtained.

image

Wanted Half Coefficient : – To express the unusual values ​​of molecular number properties, a scientist named Want Half gave a coefficient called Want Half Coefficient, it is denoted by i.

i = observed values ​​of molecular number properties / theoretical values ​​of molecular properties

i = observed value of number of moles of solute / theoretical value of number of moles of solute

Case -1 :- If i = 1 then there will be neither ionization nor conjugation of the solute in the solution.
In this situation unusual values ​​of molecular number properties are obtained.

Case -2 :- If i > 1 then ionization of the solute takes place in the solution.

Case -3 :- If i < 1 then there will be multiplication of solute in solution

★ Relationship between Boiling Point Elevation and Want Half Coefficient :-

Tb = iKb.m
Tb = i.Kb[Wa/Ma]×[1000/Wb]

★ Relationship between wanted half coefficient and freezing point depression :-

Tf = i.Kf.m
Tb = I.Kf.[Wa/Ma]×[1000/Wb]

★ Relationship between wanted half coefficient and osmotic pressure :-

= i.CRT

★ Relationship between relative depression of Vant half coefficient and vapor pressure :-

Tf = i.Kf[Wa/Ma]×[1000/Mb]

*imp*
Q – Prove for solution containing non-volatile solute Tf = i.Kb.M

image

 

 

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