12th Class Surface Chemistry Notes Full Chapter

Surface chemistry notes Surface chemistry class 12 notes surface chemistry notes pdf download surface chemistry notes for neet surface chemistry class 12 handwritten notes

Surface chemistry notes Surface chemistry class 12 notes Surface Chemistry Notes Full Chapter | Surface chemistry class 12 notes 

 

Properties of colloidal solution,Heterogeneous natur,Color nature,Brownie motion,Tyndall Effect,Very fine filtration,filtration,Electric dialyzer,Dialysis,Condensation of vapor of a substance into a liquid,MLA exchange method,Condensation method ,Chemical method,Braiding Arc Method Electrical Dispersion,testing Methods,Methods of making anti-liquid colloid,Mechanism of Micellization,Mechanism of making Michel,Micelles,Miculate colloid,Large colloids,Multimolecular colloids,Dispersion medium,Dispersed phase,Colloids,Adsorption,Zeolite Catalyst,Method of action of enzymes,Properties of Enzyme Catalysts,Catalysing enzymes,.Method of heterogeneous catalysis,Heterogeneous Catalyst,Homogeneous Catalyst,Types of Induction ,Induced Catalyst,Spontaneous Catalyst,Negative catalyst,Triggers are of two types,Catalyst,Applications of adsorption,Effect of pressure,Effect of temperature,Surface area of ​​adsorption,Difference between physical adsorption and chemical adsorption,Types of Adsorption,Adsorbents,Adsorbent,Positive adsorption,Negative adsorption,Surface chemistry,Surface chemistry notes

Surface chemistry class 12 notes

 

 

Surface chemistry : – The branch of chemistry under which information about physical and chemical changes occurring on a surface is called surface chemistry.

Adsorption

When the particles of the adsorbent are adsorbed on the surface of the adsorbent, then this group is called adsorbent.
When the particles of the adsorbent increase the surface of an adsorption surface, then this property is also called adsorption.

 

Difference between adsorption and absorption?
Adsorption Absorption
(1) It is a surface or surface process (1) It is an internal process
(2) The concentration of each part is different in it (2) The concentration of each part is different in it
(3) It is initially fast and then slow (3) It is always with the same speed

 

Adsorbents :- The substances which are adsorbed in the adsorption surface are called adsorbents.
Adsorbed substances can be in liquid or gas state

Adsorbent :- The surface on which the action of adsorption takes place is called the adsorbent surface.
The state of adsorption layer can be solid or liquid

Positive adsorption :- When the concentration of the particles of adsorbent is more than that of the adsorbent surface, then it is called positive adsorption.

Negative adsorption : – When the concentration of the particles of adsorbent is less than that of the adsorbent surface, then it is called negative adsorption.

Types of Adsorption – There are two types of adsorption

1- Physical adsorption :- When a weak Vanderwaal force acts between the particles of the adsorbent and the adsorbent surface, the process of physical adsorption takes place in it.

2- Chemical adsorption : – When a strong chemical force acts between the particles of the adsorbent and the adsorbent surface, the process of chemical adsorption takes place in it.

Q – Difference between physical adsorption and chemical adsorption

Physical adsorption

(1) In this, the weak Vanderwaal force acts between the adsorbent and the adsorption.

(2) it is a reversible process

(3) There is a weak chemical reaction between the adsorbent and the adsorbent.

(4) Adsorption decreases with increase in temperature
The amount of adsorption increases as the surface area of ​​the adsorbent increases

(5) It has a multi-molecular surface

(6) It is not specific in nature

(7) Its heat value is less (20 – 40)k.j mol-

 

Chemical adsorption

(1) Strong chemical force acts between the adsorbent and the adsorbent.

(2) it is an irreversible process

(3) Adsorption and adsorption Madhya Pradesh chemical reaction takes place in this

(4) adsorption increases with increase in temperature
It also increases with increasing surface area of ​​adsorption

(5) it has the surface of a single molecule

(6) it is of a specific nature

(7) Its heat value is high (80 – 240)k.j mol-

 

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Surface Chemistry Notes Surface Chemistry Class 12 Notes Surface Chemistry Notes Full Chapter | Surface Chemistry Class 12 Notes 
Surface Chemistry Notes Surface Chemistry Class 12 Notes Surface Chemistry Notes Full Chapter

 

Factors affecting adsorption

Adsorption occurs in the solid state, the adsorbent occurs in the gas state, the action of adsorption is affected by the following factors

(1) On the nature of adsorption (gas) and adsorbed (solid) – those gases which liquefy easily (H-Cl,NH3,CO2) These gases have more adsorption capacity whereas those gases which are nonionic (easily liquefied) They do not liquefy with (H2-O2 N2) their adsorption capacity is relatively low because ionic reactions take place at a rapid rate and they depend on their critical temperature.

The critical temperature of a gas is the minimum temperature at which liquefaction of the gas is not possible at higher temperatures, no matter how much pressure is applied to it.

Note:- The higher the critical temperature of a gas, the more easily it liquefies, the more adsorption will be

(4) Surface area of ​​adsorption :- If the value of surface area of ​​a solid adsorbent will increase then the action of adsorption on it will also be more because the action of adsorption is proportional to the surface of adsorption
EX:- Order of adsorption capacity:–(Pcl>pt>Au>Ni )

(5) Effect of temperature : – When a gas is dissolved in a liquid, that is, the gas is adsorbed, then in this case if their temperature is increased, then the momentum energy of the particles of the dissolved gas will increase. Due to this, they will start evaporating again by colliding with each other, that is, on increasing the temperature, the adsorption capacity of the gas in the gaseous process decreases.

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(6) Effect of pressure : – When pressure is increased on an adsorbed substance, then the amount of its adsorption increases, that is, the amount of adsorption is proportional to the pressure applied on the adsorbed substance.
Amount of adsorption P

Friendly gave an isotherm curve to explain this effect of pressure under different conditions i.e. different values ​​of pressure.

* Friendly (Friendlyvo) isotherm curve : – According to this, the amount of adsorption is defined for different values ​​of the same pressure.

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* Applications of adsorption

(1) Gas Mask : – Active 4 mol is used in gas mask, it adsorbs poisonous and harmful gases (CO, CH {4}) present in the air.

(2) In the dyeing of clothes :- Alum is used in this which adsorbs the particles of pigments.

(3) Removal of moisture : – Silica gel is used to adsorb the moisture present in the air.

(4) Removal of colored impurities : – The colored impurities present in sugar, rava oil etc. are adsorbed by charcoal.

(5) In Heterogeneous Catalysts : – At present, the products having phase different from the phase of the factors are called heterogeneous.

(6) Ion exchange rangine :- It is softened by adsorption of specific impurity ions (COOH, SO3) from its hard water.

(7) In generating high vacuum :- By adsorbing the air from the liquefied air by charcoal, make it vacuum

(8) Qualitative analysis : – Litmus paper is used in adsorption to test for acids and bases.

(9) In chromatography :- A mixture of antiquities is separated from its components by any of its adsorption.

 

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* Catalyst :- Those chemical substances which do not actively participate in any chemical reaction but change the reaction rate and keep itself unchanged are called catalysts and this property of them is called catalysis.

=> Triggers are of two types

(A) Positive : – These are those whose rate of a chemical reaction increases because the value of activation energy of that reaction decreases with a positive catalyst.

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(B) Negative catalyst :- Those catalysts which decrease the rate of reaction are called negative catalyst

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(C) Spontaneous Catalyst :- Those chemical reactions in which some parts of the product formed during the reaction act as catalyst, then they are called spontaneous catalytic reaction.

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(D) Induced Catalyst :- If one compound reacts with another compound and this reaction does not occur in any other reaction, then both these reactants interact with each other and react with that other compound.

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*Types of Induction

(1) Homogeneous Catalyst :- If the reactants and the catalyst have the same physical state in a chemical reaction, then it is called homogeneous catalyst.

2SO2{g}+O2 {g} _NO{g} 2SO3{g}
,
(2)- Heterogeneous Catalyst :- Those chemical reactions in which reactant and catalyst are in different states, then it is called heterogeneous catalyst.

Vegetable Oil{L}+H2{g} Ni{s} Vegetable Ghee{s}
,

N2{g}+3H2{g} Fe{s} 2NH3{g}
,

Imp*
Method of heterogeneous catalysis : – If in a chemical reaction the catalyst is in solid state and the reactant is in gas state in liquid, then it will be heterogeneous and its mechanism of action is explained in the following steps.

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Free valencies are found around the catalyst, so the reactants get denatured around the catalyst and gradually get adsorbed, after this adsorption their activity gradually increases due to which those reactants start interacting with each other and Forms intermediates When their activity increases, they completely dissociate from the surface of the catalyst forming a product, thus a solid catalyst increases the activity of the reactants in the reaction

The main points of this theory are as follows

(1)- Separating the reactant from the surface after activating the product, so that the catalyst can activate the reactants in large quantities

(2)- Small amount of catalyst affects many reactants

(3)- When the reactants form a reaction by forming an intermediate, its adsorption energy makes up the shortfall of activation energy.

(4)- An enhancer is adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst in such a way that the number of active centers increases

(5)- The molecule of the poison is strongly bonded to the free valency O present on the question of the answer

 

Catalysing enzymes : – They are complex compounds with high molecular weight containing nitrogen, they are obtained from living plants and plants, they get colloidal solution when dissolved in water, they are involved in various types of biochemical reactions. They are used as catalysts, so they are called biochemical catalysts; this property of them is called biochemical catalysis.

The size of the particles of enzymes is 10 to 100 nm.

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Properties of Enzyme Catalysts

(1)- They are specific in nature because a certain enzyme catalyst is taken for a single biochemical reaction.

(2)- Enzyme catalysts are highly effective because one molecule of them can affect about 1000000 molecules of the reactants.

(3)- All enzymes work at a certain temperature and at a certain pH, they are called optimum temperature (optimal) or optimum temperature respectively.

(4)- They are of colloidal nature, they can be destroyed by electrolysis by coagulation.

(5)- Some metal ions act as enhancers for enzymes.

(6)- Some substances for enzymes like ( Mn+{2},Co+{2},Cu+{2},Fe+{3}Zn+{2},etc. ) etc. Substances act like poisons which are exposed to ultraviolet radiation. gets destroyed by

NOTE :- The adaptation temperature of the human body is pH 7.4 and the optimum temperature for enzymes is between 25° to 37°, the optimum pH is about 7.

 

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* Method of action of enzymes : – Enzymes work on the lock key principle in any biochemical reaction, this mechanism of action is in two steps.

(1) First step :- In this, the reactant (subtract) reacts with the enzymes immo to form an intermediate chain.

(2) Second step :- In this it forms intermediate product and gets separated from the enzyme.

Enhancer and Poison: The co-catalyst taken with a catalyst in a chemical reaction, which increases the activity of this catalyst, is called enhancer.

Toxins:- Those co-activators which reduce the activity of the catalyst are called poisons.

* Zeolite Catalyst

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It is also called sodium zeolite, it is alumino silicate of NA, its structure is almost similar to that of honey marvi, that is, pores are found on the surface, it is filled with water added molecules in the pores, so it is heated before use, so that Hydrated molecules come out and the stomata are vacated, these catalyst particles in the stomata get adsorbed and increase their activity.

=> Zeolite catalyst named ZSM-5 is used in petrochemical which converts ethanol directly into gasoline

Q1:- What is the difference between exploitation and adsorption?
Exploitation:- If both the processes of adsorption and absorption take place together, then it is called exploitation.

Adsorption :- The removal of an adsorbent from an adsorption surface is called adsorption.

 

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Colloids

The particles of matter which cannot be easily filtered through a semi-permeable membrane are called colloids, whereas those particles which can be easily passed through a semi-permeable membrane are called crystalloids.

=> A solution made up of colloidal particles is called colloidal solution.

=> There are three types of villains

(1)- real solution (2)- colloidal solution (3)- suspension William

=> Colloidal solution has two major components

(1) – Dispersed phase – The component which is present in a small amount in a colloidal solution is called the dispersed phase.

(2)- Dispersion medium :- The component which is present in large quantity in a colloidal solution is called dispersion.

colloidal solution = dispersed phase + dispersion medium

Classification on the basis of particles of the tested phase

(1)- Multimolecular colloids : – In these colloids, the atomic size is less than about 10(-7) and weak Vanderwaal forces are found in those particles, these colloids are present in the form of groups of 1000 or more molecules. Huh
Ex – Sulfur Sol(S8)

(2) – Large colloids : – The size of the molecules in these lines is large, they have high molecular weight.
There are two types of large colloids

Natural macro colloids :- Start, Enzyme, Cellulose, Protein etc.

Artificial Large Colloids :- Nylon, Polythene, Poly Styrene

Imp*
(3)-Miculate colloid (micelle) : – Those substances which act as an electrolyte at their low concentration, then they are called conjugated colloids.

Micelles : – Those substances form Michel through a cage-like structure, hence these conjugated colloids are called Michel.

 

Mechanism of making Michel

High molecular weight compounds are taken for Michel formation such as sodium stearate (C17H35COONa)

  • About 100 or more molecules of this molecule are taken
  • For making Michel, such molecules are taken in which both affectionate and anti-matter parts are present.
  • Sodium stearate at its low concentration acts as an electrolyte with the COO-part as the liquid moiety while the C17H35 liquid as the antagonist

C17H35-COO(-)-Na(+) <–Low Concentration–> C17H35-COO(-) Fluid Anti + Na(+) Fluid Lubricant

 

  • At high concentration these sodium stearate agglomerate into a spherical form in such a way that its liquid-loving parts are located towards the periphery (outside) while the anti-matter parts are located towards the centre, thus forming Michel

 

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Mechanism of Micellization (Refining action of soap)

In sodium stearate (soap) there is a liquid lubricating part on the surface, which draws (by action) the lubricating droplets in the oil from the dirty cloth. The cloth becomes visible when the droplets of soap become dirty, this is called the purification process of soap.

Methods of making anti-liquid colloid :- Breaking large particles of an anti-liquid colloid and making them into colloid shape is called dispersion method, while making fine particles into colloid shape by mixing them together is called condensation method.

(A) – Testing Methods :-

(1) – First suspension is made by breaking a substance into pieces, then taking that suspension in a colloidal mill (grinding) to make a colloidal solution

This colloidal mill consists of mechanical parts of two metals, which work at a speed of about 6000 per minute.
Therefore, in this method, the suspension particles are crushed into colloidal particles by a colloidal mill.

(2) – Braiding Arc Method (Electrical Dispersion) :- Taking a dispersion medium in a vessel, keep it frozen, then taking two thin wires of the metal of which the sol is to be made, connect them in the electric circuit and by immersing them in water, colliding with each other. Electric arcs are produced, due to which the particles of that metal dissolve in water and by repeating this process again and again, that metal gets sol.

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(B) – Condensation method (Chemical method) : – Different types of sols are obtained by the reactions of reduction, oxidation, double and hydrolysis of different reactants taken to form colloidal solution.

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(2) MLA exchange method : – Some substances which are more soluble in alcohol than in water, they give colloidal solution on adding excess of water to the solution of alcoholic, i.e. on transfer exchange in water, more combination of molecules takes place, due to which sol is obtained. are there

(3) Condensation of vapor of a substance into a liquid : – When the vapor of a boiling substance is passed through a liquid, a colloidal solution of that substance is obtained.
Aqueous colloids of sulphur, mercury, Hg can be obtained by this method.

Purification of Colloidal Solutions

(1)-Dialysis : – Filling the colloidal solution in a semi-permeable membrane, binds it in a bundle-like form, then taking water in a vessel and sinking it into the semi-permeable membrane, so that the water particles go into the semi-permeable liquid. reacts with impurities, then this dialyzer is taken out, then these impurities diffuse out with water, by repeating this process again and again, that colloidal solution is purified.

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(2)- Electric dialyzer : – This is a new technique of dialysis, in which the process of dialysis is done by putting an electric circuit, due to which the dialysis is done with intensity.
Method – The impure colloidal solution is filled between two dialysis membranes, then it is arranged in the middle part of a vessel and pure water is filled on both of it and it is called its outer part. By doing this, the impurities present in the colloidal solution start distributing towards the opposite electrode, that is, the impurities start coming out of Delhi.
Note – Colloidal solution is charged and the impurities present in it are oppositely charged.

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Imp*
Very fine filtration (filtration) : – For this, a filter paper is used, but due to the size of the stomata a little larger, small sized colloidal particles are filtered out of it, so the filter paper is called colloidal to make those pores fine. It is immersed in it, due to which the rand becomes fine.
Note – The solution formed by mixing 4% nitrocellulose in ethyl alcohol, ether is called collodion.

=> Remove the filter paper from the collodion and immerse it in the form aldehyde, which makes it hard, now that colloidal solution is filtered through this filter paper, from which the impurities are filtered and separated and the colloidal solution remains

Properties of colloidal solution

(1)- Heterogeneous nature :- Colloidal solution is made up of particles with two different physical states, in other words, due to the large size of the particles of the tested phase, they are of heterogeneous nature.

(2) – Color nature : – The color of a colloidal solution depends on the wavelength of light transmitted by the tested phase, that is, the color that is scattered by a colloidal solution, that object appears to be of the same color.

(3)- Brownie motion :- If a colloidal solution is seen with the help of a very powerful microscope, then those colloidal particles keep on moving continuously and colliding with each other if the size of the particles of the familiar phase is large and the dispersion If the viscosity of the medium is high, then the value of brownie speed will be less, that is, the brownie speed will be slow.

(4)- Tyndall Effect : – This is an optical phenomenon, in which when a colloidal solution is placed in the presence of light, the beam of light is incident on those colloidal particles and is scattered equally all around, due to which those particles give us When a beam of light strikes colloidal particles, it forms a cluster-like structure called a Tyndall cluster.

=> The path of light is visible when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution, whereas the path is not visible when it passes through a real solution.

=> Larger the size of the colloidal particles, greater will be the wave resistance of the reflected rays, in which case the Tyndall effect will also be greater.

=>Dental effect will be greater for this reason in anti-mass colloids than in liquid-lubricant

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Surface chemistry notes Surface chemistry class 12 notes Surface chemistry class 12 handwritten notes surface chemistry notes class 12 pdf surface chemistry class 12 notes examfear surface chemistry class 12 notes pdf

Surface chemistry class 12 handwritten notes surface chemistry notes class 12 pdf surface chemistry class 12 notes examfear surface chemistry class 12 notes pdf