What is a solid state

what is a solid state?
what are the types of solids?

What is a solid state drive

what is a solid state?
what are the types of solids?

Solid State – The state of matter in which carbon atoms, ions are held together by strong intermolecular forces of attraction are called solids.

Types of Solids – There are 2 types of solids

(1) crystalline solid

(2) amorphous solid

(1) what is a crystalline solid called?

The solids in which the constituent particles are arranged in a definite (geometry) shape are called crystalline solids. Crystalline solids are also called real solids such as diamond, quarter, NaCl.

(2) Why are crystalline solids called real solids?

A crystalline solid is called a true solid because the constituent particles are held in a fixed geometry and the constituent particles are held together by strong intermolecular forces of attraction, as in diamond.

What are the types of crystalline solids?

There are four types of crystalline solids
(1) ionic solid

(2) covalent solids

(3) metallic solid

(4) molecular solid

what is an amorphous solid called?

Solids in which the constituent particles are not arranged in a definite shape (geometry) are called amorphous solids such as glass, rubber, plastic.

What is a solid state what are the types of solids Solid state notes what is solid state class 12 what is a solid state drive what is solid in chemistry
Difference between crystalline and amorphous solid?
Crystalline Amorphous
  • In this the constituent particles are arranged in a definite geometry
  • In this the constituent particles do not stay in a fixed geometry
  • their melting point is not fixed
  • These are also called real solids
  • These are also called virtual solids
  • These solids exhibit heterogeneity
  • It shows homogeneity
  • their cooling curve is continuous
  • their cooling curve is discrete
  • like a diamond
  • like glass

What is a solid state chemistery

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Classification of solids on the basis of different bonds

Solids are divided into three parts on the basis of electrical properties of solids – conductivity.

Driver:-

In this, the conduction of electric current is very high, their range of conductivity is from 10⁴ to 10⅞ om-¹m-¹.

These are also divided into two parts (How many parts the solids are divided into)

Metallic Driver (Electronic Slick) –

In this, the conduction of electric current is in the form of free electrons and there is no chemical change in them when electric current is passed through them.

For example, all metals, Ag, Au, Cu, etc..

Electrolytic (ionic conductor) –

In this, the conduction of electric current occurs in the form of free ions, on passing electric current, they undergo chemical changes, their conductivity increases due to increase in temperature. It exhibits conductivity due to

Eg – Nacl,Kal,CuSo4 ..

 

Insulator –

There is no conduction of electric current in them, their conductivity ranges from (10 to the power – 20) to (10 to the power of 10 – 10 ohm inverse meter inverse).

Eg. wood, plastic, sulfur(s)

 

Semiconductor –

Whose conductivity is the distance between conductors and non-conductors, their range of conductivity is 6 to the power of 10 to the power of 10, 4 ohm inverse meter inverse

And it behaves like a complete insulator at 0 degree Kelvin temperature and increasing their price increases their conductivity.

There are two types of semiconductors

(1):- Intrinsic / Intrinsic / Intrinsic Semiconductor –

These types of semiconductors have very low conductivity, their conductivity increases with increasing temperature because at high temperature some covalent bonds are broken in them, due to which electrons become free and exhibit conductivity, hence they are called intrinsic semiconductors like Si, Ge

(2):- Extrinsic or orthogonal semiconductor –

The conductivity of this type of semiconductor is very low, adding impurity increases the conductivity because by adding impurity, free electrons are generated in them, which exhibit conductivity, hence these are called extrinsic semiconductors.

 

These are divided into two parts 

  1. N- प्रकार के अर्धचालक( इलेक्ट्रॉन धनी अशुद्धि)
  2. P – प्रकार के अर्धचालक( इलेक्ट्रॉन न्यून अशुद्धि)
(1) N-type semiconductor (electron rich impurity) :-

If group 15 elements are doped (doping) with group 14 elements, then n types of semiconductors are obtained.

For example, silicon is a clever valence, adding the impurity of phosphorus pentavalent to it, then one electron of the porous remains in the state, which exhibits conductivity because electron is a negatively charged particle due to which conductivity arises, so they are called non-semiconductors. Goes

 

(2) P – type semiconductor (electron deficient impurity) –

If group 14 elements are mixed with group 13 elements, then p type semiconductors are obtained.

As silicon is a tetravalent element and boro is a trivalent element.

When silicon and boron impurities are mixed, only 3 electrons of boron can bond.

In this, the electron-deficient hole near the boron, which is called the positive hole, becomes available because the conductivity arises due to the positive hole, so it is called a p-type semiconductor.

 

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